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Кандидат педагогічних наук Бахов І. С.
Кандидат філологічних наук Олійник В. О.
Міжрегіональна Академія управління персоналом, Київ
I. Bakhov, V. Oliinyk
DIFFERENTIATION AND SPECIFICATION OF CONCEPTS IN TRANSLATING ORIGINAL TEXTS
Translation is the conversion of messages of the source language into the language of translation. To translate first of all means to express correctly and completely by means of a language what had already been expressed by another language before.
By definition, accurate translation is impossible due to the fact that different languages differ both by grammatical models, and just by number of words, not to mention the difference in cultures.
In the process of translation it is often impossible to use the correspondence of words and expressions that a dictionary gives us. In such cases, we resort to the transformation process of translation, which is to convert the internal form of words or phrases, or its complete replacement for adequate transmission of the content of expression.
Achieving adequacy in translation associated with the ability to correctly identify translation problems and make the necessary translation transformation. The study translation transformations in the translation of social and political text and is the main aim of this work.
Formulated objective implies solving a series of particular problems:
1. to reveal translation transformation in texts of translation;
2. to identify reasons for using translation transformations in the translation of social and political text;
3. to study the complex nature of translation transformations;
To solve these problems are used the following methods: a comparative analysis of comparing the translated text with the original text, transformation, quantitative analysis, discourse analysis.
Actuality of the study is determined by the need to a more complete detection and comprehensive study of translation transformations used in the translation to achieve adequacy.
The theoretical basis of the study served as the classification of translation transformations proposed by renowned linguists: M. Makeyeva, V. Komissarov and Ya. Retsker. [1; 4]
The theoretical significance of the work lies in complex consideration of translation transformations in welcoming speech of the U.S. President Barack Obama addressed to the joint session of the Congress.
The practical value of this article is determined by the ability to use research material of transformations in translation, including such methods as differentiation and specification in the Translation Theory and Practice course.
The main goal of translation is achieving adequacy. The main task of the translator in achieving adequacy is to skillfully perform different translation transformations so that the translated text as accurately as possible conveyed all the information embedded in the original text, complying with appropriate norms of language of translation.
Transformations through which the transition from original units to units of translation are carried out, are called translational transformations. However, the term "transformation" can not be understood literally: original text itself "will not transform" in the sense that it does not change by itself. Of course, this text itself remains unchanged, but along with it and through it is created another text in another language.
It is known that word meaning is composed of the sum of all its meanings found in different contexts, and the more the word is used in various contexts, the wider is its range of meanings. Naturally, this allows you to engage the word in various semantic relations with other words, increasing its compatibility. A wide compatibility of words creates new opportunities for its use in new contexts. However, in some cases the extension of the word meanings increases its compatibility and its use in many different contexts leads to instability and vagueness of its semantic boundaries and to reduce its language meaning.
Thus, lexical transformations represent deviations from the direct dictionary equivalents. Their use is mainly due to the fact that volume of lexical items of the source language and language of translation is not the same. For example, the English sentence "She wasn't looking too happy" will be translated into Ukrainian as "Вигляд у неї був досить нещасний".
Some authors such as V. Slepovych, L. Dmitrieva, J. Golikov identify three types of lexical transformations used in the translation: adding, omission and replacement [2; 3].
Thus by lexical-semantic substitutions the scholars understand this way of translation of lexical items in the source language by using in the target language units which meaning does not coincide with the meaning of the original units, but can be deduced from them by a certain type of logical transformations. To such logical transformation they refer specification, differentiation, generalization, and some other techniques.
At the same time well-known translator and linguist Ya. Retsker divides translation transformation in lexical and grammatical, and identifies seven types of lexical transformations :
a. differentiation of meanings; b. specification of meanings; c. generalization of meanings; d. semantic development; e. antonymous translation; f. complete conversion; g. compensation of losses in the translation process.
Referring specification and differentiation to replacing techniques or just to lexical transformations is considered to be not so essential: most interesting is the nature and application of these techniques.
"Relations of subordination between the concepts occur when the volume of a concept is only a part of another concept volume." This formal-logical category is the basis of three interrelated techniques of lexical transformations: differentiation and specification of meanings in translation by narrowing and generalization of meanings through the expansion of notions.
The prevalence of differentiation and specification techniques of translation from English into Ukrainian is explained by a large number of English words with wide semantics that do not have direct compliance in the Ukrainian language. Usually the techniques of differentiation and specification of meanings accompany each other. When such a fashionable word among English and American belletrists today as ‘a drink' is translated, then its differentiation is often inevitable, and this is usually performed along with its specification. Thus, when translating ‘and ordered a drink' (W. Somerset Maugham. The Bum) the dictionary articles пиття, напій, спиртний напій are clearly unacceptable. The translator of the story (in the collection "Дощ"), had to specify exactly what was ordered, and translated "Він замовив віскі". Of course, whiskey is only part of the term "alcohol", and here we can see the narrowing of the concept.
Differentiation is possible without specifying when you want to convey a broad meaning of abstract concept without its specification in the translation. It is incorrect to specify what is intentionally veiled in the original text.
Unlike differentiation, which is possible without specifying meaning, the latter is always accompanied by differentiation and is impossible without it.
By specification is understood replacement of a word or a word combination of the source language with a wider meaning by the word or phrase in the target language with a more specific meaning.
Typically, concreteness is characteristic for the lexicon of the Ukrainian language to a larger extent than the corresponding lexical units of English, which was repeatedly stated by linguists. It is specified that one word in the Ukrainian language expresses a broader, undifferentiated notion, that is meaning a wider class of detonates in another language, in English it may correspond to two or more words, each of which expresses the more narrow, differentiated, compared to the Russian concept, that is, it refers to a more limited class of detonates.
These are such words as ‘рука' - arm, hand; ‘нога' - leg, foot; ‘годинник' - watch, clock; ‘ковдра' - blanket, quilt. The word ‘їдальня' is translated as ‘dining-room' meaning only «public catering establishment», herewith ‘mess-room' - is an army canteen, ‘canteen' is at the factory or plant, а ‘refectory' is at the universities and schools.
However, at the same time semantically undifferentiated are such English words, as як ‘stove' - піч, плита, ‘bud' - брунька, бутон; ‘cold' - нежить, застуда; ‘cherry' - вишня, черешня; ‘strawberry' - суниця, полуниця; ‘story' - розповідь, повість; ‘poem' - вірш, поема, ‘blue' - блакитний, синій.
From the above it should not be concluded that some particular language cannot designate a particular concept and in this respect is less developed than the one in which there is a special feature for this concept. Any language is able to mark essentially any concept, different only are the ways of this designation.
Summarizing the article, it should be noted that the main purpose of translation is to achieve adequacy. The main task of the translator in achieving adequacy, that is to be able to make the translation transformation so that the translated the text accurately conveyed all the information embedded in the original text, subject to appropriate standards of language of translation.
In translation the translator uses transformation to achieve equivalence, as closer to the original text as possible.
In order to correctly apply the most effective methods of transformation it is necessary that the translator is equally aware of the original culture and the translating culture.
•1. Comissarov V. General theory of translation. Manual. Moscow linguistic university. - Moscow: CHeRo: Yurait, 2000. - 134 p.
•2. Dmitriyeva L. English. Translation course: student's book. - Moscow. 2005. - 288 p.
•3. Slepovich V. Translation course. - Minsk:Tetra-systems. 2003. - 320 pp.
•4. Retsker Y. Theory of translation and translation practice. Essays of linguistic theory of translation. Moscow. R. Valent. 2006. -240 pp.