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Карпова Ніна Олексіївна
Донецьке вище професійне машинобудівне училище
SHORT OVERVIEW OF MODERNEDUCATIONALTECHNOLOGIES
Анотація. У статті приводиться короткий перелік сучасних освітніх технологій, які втілюються в загальноосвітніх та вищих закладах України. Автори визначають головні завдання освіти в Україні на фоні тих тенденцій, які мають місце у всесвітньому освітньому процесі.
Ключові слова: цілі освіти,освітні технології, особистісно-орієнтований, навчання у співробітництві, компетентносний.
Аннотация. В статье приведен краткий обзор современных обучающих технологий, которые внедряются в практику преподавания общеобразовательных и высших учебных заведений в Украине. Авторы выделяют главные направления образования Украины на фоне основных тенденций в мировом образовательном процессе.
Ключевые слова: цели образования, образовательные технологии, личностно-ориентированный, образование в сотрудничестве, компетентностный.
Summary.The article gives a short overview of modern educational technologies in the light of the principal aims of education and upbringing in modern Ukraine.The authors identify the main aim of education in Ukraine on the background ofthe most important tendencies of contemporary world educational process.
Key words: aims of education; educational technologies; person-oriented; teaching in cooperation; competence-oriented.
Introduction. Education plays a great rolein economic and social life of every society. It is due to education and family upbringing that an individual can be equipped with knowledge and skills that allow him to pursue his own goals in life. Knowledge and skills received by education let him or her act in a culturally appropriate way in a certain social environment and feel more or less comfortable in a society.
Among foreign scholars there is no unanimity in their vision of the aims of education, its values, policy, curriculum matters, etc. One of the principal issues of the discord is whether education should serve personal development of an individual or whether it should be education for citizenship. Adherents of the first mentioned trend claim that the principal aim of education is to equip an individual with knowledge and skills to give him the best opportunity of defining and pursuing his own goals. This approach is called object-oriented, which is concentrated on the object - what is to be known, but not on the subject - the learner. Other scholars criticize this approach. They see the main aim of education in balancing between the interests of the society in having a well-informed and well-educated participant of this society and the interests of the individual who has the right to make his own decision and pursue his own goals in life.
In the contemporary Ukrainian society progressin many respects depends upon how qualified, creative and socially aware are the participants of the social reforms and innovations."Ukraine has entered the world educational system, and its education system fulfills important social functions creating
the intellectual potential of Ukraine which is an inseparable part of the world civilization".
Review of Literature.Among the researchers who have contributed to development of modern educational technologies of Ukraine the authors of the article, would distinguish the following: N.A.Alekseev, A.L.Andreev, I.A.Zimnyaya, A.Khutorskoi, S.Pidmazin, I.S.Yakimanskaya and a lot of others.
N.A.Alekseev  lays out the main conceptual foundationsof person-oriented education and upbringing in the secondary school Pedagogy. A.L.Andreev proves the necessity of passing from knowledge-oriented education to competence-oriented. He claims that a future specialist will live in the information society, so he or she should be able to select the necessary information out of a flow and use it for solving professional problems. He offers to assess how a student is prepared for his future professional activity with the help of the concept of competence. I.A.Zimnyaya  says that though knowledge is the cognitive foundation of any competence it is also necessary to develop in students certain qualities which help them in their future professional activity. A.Khutorskoi  devotes his study mainly to revealing the concept of competence and the meaning of being competent. The author also tries to develop different levels of competence for different age groups of school children. According to S. Pidmazin the important factor of making the learning successful is teacher's being interested in cooperating with learners to achieve a certain goal. I.S.Yakimanskaya  traces back the history of development of the concept "person-oriented education" and divides all the existing models of personal-oriented teaching technologies into three main groups: social-pedagogical, subject-didactical and psychological. The latter model is the one to be discussed in the article.
Objectives.Withoutgoing deeply into the domain of Philosophy of Education the principal n aim of the present article is to give a general overview of the most popular educational technologies in Ukraine in the light of the requirementsmodern Ukrainian society presents for education and upbringing. The priority is given to the following: person-oriented, competence-oriented technologies, teaching in cooperation, teaching in action.
Content.As mentioned in one of the documents on education in Ukraine 
the strategic task of modern education is to focus on providing the best opportunities for students to acquire knowledge, reveal and implement their talents and abilities and encourage them for life-long learning.
Among the most popular educational technologies which attract attention of Ukrainian and foreign Pedagogues is person-oriented educational technology. In Great Britain, the USA and other Western countries person-oriented teaching means that individuals with different interests and abilities can pursue a suitable curriculum. Speaking about person-oriented education and we mean not only a particular way of organizing learning process. This technology suggests that the whole process of education should be concentrated upon the personality of the learner: his or her psychological characteristics, personal experience, interests, values, cultural background, etc. Instead of forcing a student to work on topics which are not interesting for him and for which he has no motivation, person-oriented technologies aim at creating the most favorable environment to reveal the student's abilities and develop his personality. A famous Russian Psychologist P.Y.Galperin states that the teacher's task is not to lay all the responsibilities upon the students' shoulders, but to decide on the circumstances under which the student can't help but perform the action required.
We build their vision of person-oriented education on the principles developed by S. Yakimanskia  which are as follows:
•a) person-oriented education and training is based upon the idea that a learner is not an object of creating a certain model of a personality, but the subject of the process of education;
•b) the principal goal of person-oriented education and training is to create the most favorable environment for the learner to acquire knowledge and develop skills, to reveal and realize abilities and talents, develop permanent interest in learning;
•c) person-oriented approach to education is based upon the knowledge of cognitive processes which manifest themselves differently in different learners;
•d) for the process of education to be successful a teacher should motivate learners and get them interested in learning;
•e) education and training should take into account each learner's experience;
•f) acquiring knowledge is not a goal in itself, but a means of developing a person's self-esteem, revealing and implementing his abilities, in general, molding a successful personality.
Close to person-oriented technologies is the concept of cooperative education. The main idea of this technology is working in small groups and creating favorable environment for teachers and students to work in cooperation with each other. The idea of cooperative technology was put forward by a group of American teachers from John Hopkins' University R. Slavin, Rogers Johnson and others. It has been proved by practice of teaching that working in cooperation is more productive than a monotonous activity of a single learner.Cooperative learning not only improves academic gains but students' social skills, increases their social and group accountability, their self-esteem and self-concept. In the Ukrainian Pedagogy the idea of cooperative learning was followed and developed by S.Pidmazin and others. The author stresses that the cooperation should start from the teacher's desire and readiness to cooperate with students and his being interested in the results achieved .
Problems of competence-oriented educational technology are also being actively implemented into modern Pedagogy. Mere existence of this educational technology can be explained by the situation at the labor market. To get adapted to certain social and professional environment which is constantly changing, a specialist should be prepared for life-long learning, as he needs to improve his knowledge and skills during his professional activity. In view of the mentioned above the focus of the process of education should be shifted from pouring a huge amount of information on a student to teaching him how to master the methods of acquiring knowledge and improving skills. So the principal goal of competence-oriented educational technology is teaching future specialists to educate themselves, equipping them not only with knowledge and skills, but developing certain personal characteristics which will make them able to solve problems pertaining to education, communication, organization and morality connected with their professional activity.
Conclusion. The process of education is quite complicated and overwhelming. Each of the educational technologies mentioned above represents a certain aspect of the whole process of education and upbringing. Education is an important social domain closely connected with policy, economy and culture of every society. Developing teacher's skill suggests that he or she should master all the modern educational technologies and be able to apply the most appropriate one to achieve certain pedagogical goals.
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