XIV ̳ - ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES OF SCIENCE AND EDUCATION (19-21.04.2018)

English





Mykolyuk Svitlana, Semidotska Nataliia ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS

: . . a,

Bachelor Svitlana Mykolyuk

Bachelor Nataliia Semidotska

NTUU KPI, Heat-and-Power Engeneering Department

Kyiv

ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS

Nowadays more people are aware of environmental problems such as the pollution of air, global warming, the pollution of oceans, etc. Environmental protection has become a global concern.

Nowadays more people are aware of environmental problems such as the pollution of air, global warming, the pollution of oceans, etc. Environmental protection has become a global concern.Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to ecosystem, including air, water and land with undesirable amounts of material or energy. [1]

It is created mostly by human activity, but can also be a result of natural disasters. Today the Pollution control system is becoming used almost everywhere. Without pollution control, the waste products from consumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment.[2]

Pollutions created by human activity is of interest. The two main sources of pollutants in urban areas are transportation and fuel combustion in stationary sources, including residential, commercial, and industrial heating, cooling and coal-burning power plants.Air pollution is especially severe in many of the hihgly industrialized cities and towns of southeastern Ukraine.The greenhouse effect causes the rise if global temperature. [3]

Ecology monitoring is connected with the problems of collecting and analyzing data about large territories. The insect ecology, or beneficial to pest ratio, can help growers make pest management decisions which will fulfill their objectives. Monitoring insect ecology is a great way to save money and reduce pesticide use.

Ecological economics is an economic science that extends its methods of valuation onto nature in an effort to address the inequity between market growth and biodiversity loss. Natural capital is the stock of materials or information stored in biodiversity that generates services enhancing the welfare of communities.

Ecological economics includes the study of society metabolism , that is the study of energy flows and materials that enter and exit the economic system. Ecological economics is based on a conceptual model of economy connected to and sustained by a flow of energy, materials and ecosystem services.[4]

The economic value of natural capital and ecosystem services is accepted by mainstream environmental economics, but is emphasized as especially important in ecological economics. Ecological economics may start from estimating how to maintain a stable environment before assessing the cost in dollar terms.

Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat,

Ukraine has a huge potential of renewable energy resources of almost all the types (solar, wind, biomass, biofuel, geothermal and micro hydropower). Tapping this resource promise a great potential in line with worlds trend for using Renewable energy and in accordance with Kyoto protocol, which was signed by Ukraine and other countries.

Ukraine like most of industrial countries observes development of wind energy usage in the large and medium capacity windmills installation. A strong wind power industry support was given by a Ukrainian government in law adopted in 1996 in the form of Complex Wind Farms Construction Program with a target of 1990 MW of capacity to be installed by 2010. Twenty three Ukrainian plants are involved in production of the USW 56-100, with Yuzhmash factory responsible for the assembly. [5]

Another potential segment for wind power generating is installing small-capacity windmills up to 20 kW for the needs of agriculture sector which is estimated to have the potential to cover all agriculture and upcountry land electricity demands. Period of sun shining on the territory of Ukraine is 1900-2400 hr/yr, and total average annual solar radiation varies from 1070 kWh/m in northern part of Ukraine to 1400 kWh/m in southern part. Climatic conditions of Ukraine allow also to use solar energy for the heating of buildings, creation of all-year-round centralized district heating systems with seasonal heat storage. Such technical solutions have been already realized in many countries located much more to the North than Ukraine.

On the contrary to wind energy generators the photovoltaic systems could be installed on the whole territory of Ukraine as Ukraine has a quite favorable solar harvesting climate with the average solar insulation per square meter per day of 1.5 to 2.7 kWh increasing from northwest to southeast. The most effective areas are located at Crimean peninsula, especially at eastern coastline.[6]

For Ukraine the need to improve energetical security and to reduce the environmental impact of its energy sector is a critical issue. Renewable energy can play a key role in realising both of these tasks.

Everyone can help to reduce global air pollution and avoid quick climate changes by using the system of alternative and green energy.

The software system for evaluating the effectiveness of using the renewable energy , namely, to find economic, ecology and energy impact becomes a necessity .

Bibliography:

1. http://resources.lawyersnjurists.com/researchpapers/assignments/miscellaneous/environment-should-be-protecting-from-industries-pollution-and-types-of-law-that-we-have-to-protect-our-environment-pollution-in-the-world/

2. http://www.scribd.com/doc/44287783/Air-Water-Land-Noise-Pollution-Information-and-Pics

3. http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/earth_atmosph_radiation_budget.html

4. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Biophysical_economics

5. http://www.kpl.net.ua/en/Energy_market_in_Ukraine.html

6. http://globalimpactconsulting.com/11/5/2/hot_sectors/renewable_energy/ukraine.html


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