XIV ̳ - ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES OF SCIENCE AND EDUCATION (19-21.04.2018)

English





P.G. Ryeznik E.P., Khaylenko O.V. PROBLEMS OF BIO INDICATIONAL USE OF MOLLUSCS GENUS HELIX AND EOBANIA IN URBANIZED ECOSYSTEMS OF CRIMEA CITIES

P.G. Ryeznik E.P., Khaylenko O.V.

Tavrida national university n.a. V.I.Vernadsky, Simferopol, AR Crimea, Ukraine

PROBLEMS OF BIO INDICATIONAL USE OF MOLLUSCS GENUS HELIX AND EOBANIA IN URBANIZED ECOSYSTEMS OF CRIMEA CITIES

Ground mollusks amaze us with diversity of forms, intraspecific variability, habitat area, simple conditions in labs and farms. All this characteristics make snails ideal objects for different zoological and ecological research. As for the exemplars of mollusk family Helicidae, they are the biggest snail exemplars. Number of species, living on territory of Crimea - 4: Helix pomatia, Helix lucorum, Helix albescens and Eobania vermiculata. Examples of the first specie has disappeared for the last decade (although there were many attempts to settle them on the whole Crimea), second specie lives in highly specialized areas of acclimatization (Bahchisaray area along Belbek river, Kara-Dag nature reserve, Yalta mountain - forest resort and along vineyards of Sevastopol area), Helix albescens and Eobania vermiculata spreads everywhere and almost evenly on the territory of the whole Crimea peninsula. The development of civilizationis continuouslyconnected with the processof urbanization.According to the forecastsof manybiologists,the total area of​​an urbanizedareaof the globeby 2050will amount tomore than 30%of the territory assignedto liveon land.Zooecologicalstudyurban ecosystemshaveboth scientificand practical importance [4].The process of urbanizationleads to a change, and oftenthe destructionof natural habitats.Whileformingurban, suburbanand garden-parkas a separategroup of man-madebiogeocenoses, that are beginning to study by scientists around the world.

Poorly studiedthe effect of urbanizationandmanyman-made factorsandbarriers in theanatomicalandconchological parameters of snail examples of citiesandareasunoccupiedby people.

As is known,terrestrial mollusksarenaturalbio indicatorsof changes, including the human impacton vegetation andsoil.

In a shell and body of snail accumulate a range of chemical elements: copper, lead, zinc, strontium, which are main components of environmental contamination. Interesting fact that, even with long anthropogenic influence on this small animals, it almost don't influence the species composition and amount in urban malco-fauna, because mollusks has high level of adaptation (third place after scorpions and roaches) to high concentrations of some chemical elements.

Problem of snail expansion in city that snails are sedentary animals and they can't expand naturally. City biotopes: parks, public gardens, well landscaped streets, and suburban plantations populated by individual commensal snail species [1,2]. The problem itself is that while creating park no one thinks about mollusk introduction and that urban conditions are not suitable for mollusks. Second big problem - weak and often entirely absent leaf litter, presence of old and raw trees in park, hemps, overgrown shrubs, in which the snails live, hide from adverse weather conditions and where they can spawn caviar/eggs, that is to acquire offspring.

The most important in snail life are land cover and soil salinity, also moisture and climate conditions.

We should consider the fact that when we use snails as natural bio indicators, we should watch for variability of land cover and consider adverse conditions for snails: dry hot summer and long absence of rainfall [3,4].

The ability to usethe snailsasbio-indicatorsof urbanformis limitedinseveral importantfactors: thehistory of thecity, the state ofurban floraand fauna, infrastructure developmentand developing newareasof the city [5,6].

Literature:

1. Leonov S.V. Influence of habitat conditions on size-age structure of populations of ground mollusk (Gastropoda; Pulmonata) Helix albescens Rossmassler, 1839 in Crimea // Ecology: from genes to eco systems.- Ekaterinburg, 2005.- P. 152-153.

2. Leonov S.V. Distributionof commonsnailin the Crimeaandthe definition ofbiomassof individualsettlements // Science notes TNU n.a. V.I.Vernadsky.- 2001.- . 14 (53), 1.- P. 75-79.

3. Ryeznik E.P. Influence of anthropogenic stresses on mollusk specie Eobania vermiculata (Muller, 1774) in conditions of Simferopol city and its area - Collection ofmaterials of the firstintercollegiatestudent conference "Economic potential of my country", - Sevastopol. - "SEU", 2010. - P. 27

4. Hohutkin I.M. Structure of species variability on the example of ground mollusks.- Ekatirinburg: RSA, 1997.- 176 p.

5. Popov V. N., Zarochentzev G. A. Interspecific variation in resistance to dessication of four species land snail genus Helix (Gastropoda; Pulmonata) // Abstracts of 12 Intern. Malacological congress. - Vigo, Spain, 1995. - P. 495-496.

6. Turček F.I. Studies on the ecology and production of the Roman snail Helix pomatia L. // Biologia (ČSSR), 1970.- 25, N2.- P. 103-108.

e-mail:elizabet.reznik@gmail.com


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