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Tarasenko L. V., Arbuznikova E. S.
Odessa National A.S. Popov Academy of Telecommunications
FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING IN TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOLS
The aim of foreign language teaching can be expressed in terms of an activity approach as the formation by the pupils of linguistic thinking and a linguistic consciousness. On that basis or perhaps more exactly, through this basis, are formed the various speech abilities: speaking, writing (expressive forms), and listening and reading skills (impressive forms). Depending on the type of teaching institute, these goals can be illustrated by the selection of various types of (goal oriented) problems. In this article the experience in the application of Galperin's theory of planned forming of mental actions and concepts in a non-language institute is presented.
It is known that, when using language, human knowledge is saved and objectified in products which are speech statements. But a part of man's activity in "producing" a statement is also embodied in it. A.N. Leont'ev has pointed out that for an activity to be incorporated in a given product it is necessary to perform an activity appropriate to that which is embodied in the product. Performing the construction of the statement therefore appears as an independent, major and specific problem central to the mastering of a foreign language. One problem when studying a foreign language from the beginning is sentence construction in terms of the actual articulation of a sentence as a syntactically independent statement.
The key objective which must be mastered is not only, and not so much, a sentence in the language but the method of its construction.
Mastering the method of non-linear orientation in a text written in a foreign language (whether oral or written) is a specific instance of mastering the impressive kinds of speech activity. The question is about solving such problems as dividing the text into syntactical units according to definite indicators or orientators, using the appropriate translation methods for each textual unit and thus translating the whole text into the native language. The translation is considered the first detailed base for subsequently understanding the text without translation. The method of orientation in a text appears as an objective mastered .
These two specific objectives are indispensable conditions for solving problems of the first type described above. In fact, verbal communications is impossible if one cannot construct a phrase or sentence, and understanding a foreign text is impossible if one cannot orientate oneself in it. The more generalized the means of construction of sentences in the foreign language and the orientation in a foreign text in the process of study, the better the student assimilates the experience. In this article is described the formation of expressive and impressive foreign language skills generalized both one specific language and different foreign languages.
The content of the orientation base for the indicated abilities is knowledge about the actions of which these abilities consist and particular linguistic knowledge about the specific language studied and about language as a social phenomenon. The concepts of language consciousness and the deep and surface structures of a sentence serve as the linguistic base. The central idea is the tenet that natural language, unlike the language of science, does not point directly at objects and phenomena of reality, but is a peculiar aspect of this reality seen through the interests of speech communication of the people speaking the language. Unlike the cognitive reflection which is performed in the process of thinking and which is the same for all people, the language reflection is a means of communication with other people aimed at organizing their behavior. This is the reason for the peculiarity of language reflection of objects and phenomena of reality. The method of reflection of reality includes in each language, as a social phenomenon, the consciousness of peculiarities and aspects common to all languages and the particular linguistic peculiarities of the specific language. It is extremely important that the language is treated not as a set of unconnected phenomenological details, but as a unified system of meanings. Such an approach leads to an essential change in the way language is presented in the school program. Language appears as a means for organization of speech at a general linguistic level: there is a range of all types of semantic invariants in the sentences of all languages; on a syntactic level in a range of all types of sentences in a specific language; and, on a morphological level, in a range of all grammatical categories of voice or tense, etc. It is possible to make similar statements about other aspects of language, such as the vocabulary, phonetics, or the science of style. Such representations of the material help students to master a new type of orientation on the essential features of language and speech, and help to educate them towards the feeling of language and theoretical (linguistic) thinking. This is the condition for forming adequate speech abilities at various levels of generalization.
In the content of the scholastic subject, the specific peculiarities of the language are distinguished only in the specific form characteristic for each particular case. For example, the system for use and expression of the category of time in the foreign course is presented by treating each separate grammatical form for time as an independent new theme in the course of study. And in the periods between the presentations of each separate time form other themes not related to the category of time are presented. Types of simple sentences are studied in isolation from each other. Each type of sentence is set forth as a new theme. The subordinate clause is also presented in each of its separate forms, and each form is studied as independent theme at great intervals of time.
In trying to solve the problem of content for teaching foreign language, instructors often strive to create a comprehensive micro grammar, selecting the most often used formal constructions and including from the program those phenomena rarely met in language. Such an approach is clue to several reasons. First of all, the content of the language courses is structured. In the basic of rote memory and to a much less degree on thinking, naturally, to memorize some single particular phenomenon while relying on the rote memory is significantly simpler then a whole system of phenomena. However, according to the latest psychological data, the human brain in certain situations masters and operates whole system of classes of phenomena better and with incomparable ease. The study of a foreign language and its mastery are accomplished through the assimilation of whole structure models by frequent mechanical repetition. The whole orientation of the student in that case is in how to memorize the material faster and better .
A). Objectively there are two types of problems: those which are solved by the means of language and those directly connected with the study of language - to carry on a dialogue, to construct a monologue, to write an abstract, and letter and so on. These problems have no specific content, bur are concerned with the activity of expression in a foreign language. Before he can tackle them, the student has to be able to solve them in his native language. It is obvious that the problems conditionally attributed to the second type are of more interest to us. Research shows that if we exclude from the problems concerned with mastering the foreign language, those which are solved or can be solved in the sphere of the native language, them the most complicated of those which remain are connected with the construction of separate phrases, statements and sentences, and the non-linear orientation in a foreign text (impressive).
B). Success in teaching a foreign language depends on the completeness and quality of the language material proposed for study and on the clearly determined methods of cognitive activity with which the student will master the foreign language and which must also be a subject for special mastery. This is, mainly, that activity of the student which helps him successfully master the given foreign language and, moreover, forms in the student the ability to independently study other foreign languages.
•1. Approaches and Methods in Languages Teaching / J.C. Richards, T.S. Rodgers. Cambridge University Press, 2004.
•2. Волкова Н.П. Педагогіка: Навчальний посібник - К., Академ. видавництво, 2007. - 616с.